Grade dans l'armée autrichienne 1809

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Grade dans l'armée autrichienne 1809

Messagepar Bernard » Sam Nov 18, 2017 8:07 am

Je cherche de la doc sur les grades dans l'armée autrichienne en 1809.
Les différents grades existants, leurs visualisations sur un uniforme,...
Merci à tous.
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Les grades dans l'armée autrichienne

Messagepar Thierry Melchior » Sam Nov 18, 2017 9:40 am

Bonjour Bernard,

As-tu cherché sur cette page de mon site ?

Bonnes recherches. :)
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Re: Grade dans l'armée autrichienne 1809

Messagepar Bernard » Mar Nov 21, 2017 9:33 am

Site très intéressant, mais je ne trouve pas une représentation graphique des grades dans l'armée autrichienne.
D'autres idées?
Être et durer!

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Re: Grade dans l'armée autrichienne 1809

Messagepar Thierry Melchior » Mer Nov 22, 2017 7:29 pm

J'ignore si un tel tableau existe, en tout cas je n'en ai pas trouvé après six heures de recherches.

Dans l'ordre (traduction en anglais)
FM = Feldmarschall (field marshal)
FZM = Feldzeugmeister (general of infantry, of artillery or of engineers)
GdK = General der Kavallerie (general of cavalry)
FML = Feldmarschalleutnant (lieutenant general)
GM = Generalmajor (major general)

Un livre en français de 1832 : Suite de la Notice sur l'organisation de l'armée Autrichienne :
https://books.google.fr/books?id=d3fUAA ... &q&f=false

Vous trouverez ci-dessous un texte extrait du livret de Rawkins sur l'Autriche de 1798 à 1814 (By W. J. Rawkins Edited, extended and amended by George Street) et un autre du site Ocatch (bien connu) : http://uniform-evolution.0catch.com/austria_index.html (il faut rafraîchir la page plusieurs fois pour qu'elle s'affiche enfin !)
Quelques belles images trouvées sur Internet :
https://s2.qwant.com/thumbr/0x0/7/d/aec ... =1&p=0&a=1
https://s1.qwant.com/thumbr/0x0/2/1/6a5 ... =1&p=0&a=1
https://i.pinimg.com/originals/94/cf/07 ... a7c976.jpg

Bon courage Bernard. :)

--------------------------
2.5 General Officers and Staff 2.5.1 General Officers
2.5.1.1 Headgear
Until 1805 the General Officers continued to wear the tricorn hat, faced with black velvet for the Feldmarschal and edged with wide gold lace. The Feldmarshal's lace was approximately
6cm wide embroidered or embossed with a 2cm zigzag stripe. This lace was embroidered with an oak-leaf design and the edges fluted. The cockade-strap was of the same lace as above with bastion lip and fastened with a gilt button and held a black silk bow-cockade surmounted by a tall, green cocks' tail-feather plume. The inside of the hat was lined with gold silk and the tips of the hat had small gold tassels. The General Officers' hats were decorated in the same manner with the lace trim approximately 4cm wide. In 1805 the tricorn hat was replaced with the schiffhut with decorations as above and the gold-and-black rosette cockade replaced the bow, which in turn was discontinued in 1807.

2.5.1.2 Coats
The General Officers' coat prior to 1805 was basically the same pattern as issued to infantry officers in 1798 and was white, single-breasted with long tails. Collars and cuffs were of the 'Swedish' pattern, the collar being turned over and open at the front and the cuffs deep and turned- back. The collars and cuffs were scarlet and the turnbacks white. The front of the coat was closed with nine gilded buttons and the tail pockets were horizontal with three points and a single button. The full dress, Feldmarschall's coat was decorated with twin wavy lines of gold, fluted lace embroidered with an oak-leaf design on the collar and cuffs, the former having the lace trim to the leading and bass edges, the outer narrow band being approximately 2cm wide and the inner wide band 4 cm. Cuffs had the same trim of wavy lace, the upper narrow band having three gilt buttons riding on the lace horizontally at the front of the cuff. The front edges of the coat were decorated in the same manner with wavy lace, the narrow inner band at the edge of the coat forming together so that the coat, when buttoned, had three wide bands trimming the breast and extending from the waist to trim the tails. Pockets were edged with the same lace. The undress coat was basically the same, but with lace trim to the collar and cuffs only; the breast, turnbacks and pockets were plain. The coats of the General Officers followed the same pattern, the full dress uniform having straight-edged lace embroidered with a zigzag design on the collar, cuffs, breast, turnbacks and pockets. This lace was approximately 5cm wide on the collar with two 3cm widths on the cuffs and two 5cm widths on the breast for the full General, and trim of three distinct bands of two 2cm widths and one 1cm width, but without the coloured welt between, for the General of Cavalry. The Feldmarschalleutnant had lace trim of 3cm in two bands and the Generalmajor a single 2cm width of lace. Undress coats were as for the Feldmarschal without trim to the breast, tails and pockets.

In 1805 the new style Infantry officer pattern coat was issued with upright collar and square- cut cuffs, and closed with nine gilt buttons. Coats were simplified to a great extent, the full parade dress coat having white collar trimmed as before for the Feldmarschal, scarlet cuffs and lace trim on the breast and the pockets and tails were straight-edged with the lace trim from the breast extending down the outer and inner edges. The General Officers' coats now had a single 4cm width of gold lace trimming the upper and leading edges of the collar and extending down the front of the coat forming a double width and then along the outer edges of the tails. Cuffs were trimmed at the upper and trailing edges with two bands of wide lace for the full General and a single band for the Generalleutnant and Generalmajor. The undress uniform was considerably plainer and basically the same for all General Officers. It was a plain white coat with white undecorated collar and scarlet cuffs with lace trim; a single 5cm band for the Feldmarschal, a double band for the full Generals and a single width for the Lieutenant Generals and Major Generals. Turnbacks were scarlet for the senior officers and white for the Major Generals. Pockets were unpiped.
In 1806 a service dress was introduced for wear in the field which was a light-blue-grey coat of the above pattern with scarlet collar, cuffs, turnbacks and piping to the pockets. The collar and cuffs were laced as for the undress coat and these coats were fashionably worn with the top three buttons unfastened to expose a triangle of scarlet lining piped with gold edging.
By 1809 the full parade uniform with gold lace to the breast had been reserved for royal occasions only and was not brought into service again until 1815, the undress white coat being worn for most occasions.

2.5.1.3 Breeches etc.
All General Officers wore the traditional scarlet breeches, initially with high-cuffed riding boots with brass spurs, and after 1805 with black leather knee-boots. In 1812 gold lace
Hungarian knots were added to the thighs of the breeches for Generals of Cavalry, and a 2cm wide stripe of gold lace to the outer seam. Light-blue-grey breeches could be worn with the campaign dress coat or light grey overall trousers with a single row of gilt buttons on the outer seam.
Greatcoats were of the cavalry pattern and were dark grey with Swedish collars and cuffs of scarlet with gold lace trim and gilt buttons.
The waist-sash was as for the line officers but was 'Kaiser-gelb', an almost metallic gold silk with black thread worked through.
2.5.1.4 Equipment
The waist-belt was wide and covered with gold lace with four black stripes worked through the length, and a large silver buckle-plate embossed with the Imperial Eagle picked out in gold. The belt could be worn over or beneath the sash and supported a straight epée on double slings of gold with a single black stripe. Scabbards were brown leather with gilt fittings and the sword had a gilt hilt with sabre-strap as for the sash. The Generals of Cavalry carried the curved light cavalry sabre.
2.5.1.5 Horse Furniture
The shabraques were scarlet with pointed rear and round front corners, and the Royal Cypher in the rear corner in gold. The edge of the shabraque was trimmed with gold lace;
two wide wavy bands with a half-width band at the outer edge and scarlet welts between for the Feldmarschal, two wide straight bands for the full General, a wide band with a narrow band either side for the Feldmarschalleutnant and a single wide band for the Generalmajor. From 1805 the Cypher appeared in both the front and rear corners although this would seem to have been adopted by some officers prior to that date.


2.5.2 Hungarian General Officers of Cavalry
2.5.2.1 Headgear
The General Officers of the Hungarian light cavalry, the Hussars, wore a brown fur colpack with scarlet flamme, or bag, with gold piping at the edges and gold tassel. A tall white feather
plume was fitted to the left side of the cap with a gilt socket and cords and flounders were mixed scarlet and gold. Chin-scales were gilt and fitted with bosses inside the cap. For undress campaign uniform, the hussar-style bell-topped shako was worn with black and gold cockade, gold cockade-strap and gold-and-black semi-spherical pompon surmounted by a tall green plume. Cords and flounders were gold and the upper edge of the shako, and the rear cuff, were trimmed with double bands of the Generals' lace.
2.5.2.2 Dolman
The hussar-style dolman was scarlet with twenty rows of gold braid on the breast and five rows of gilt buttons. The collar and pointed cuffs were scarlet with gold lace edging of
Generals' pattern, the cuffs having a large Hungarian knot at the point, and the base and seams of the coat were trimmed with gold lace. The campaign uniform dolman was as above but was light-blue-grey with gold braid and lace.
2.5.2.3 Pelz
The pelz was white with gold braid and lace and red fox fur trim; the lining was gold silk. The campaign dress pelz was light-blue-grey with gold braid and lace.
2.5.2.4 Breeches etc.
Full dress breeches were scarlet with a large gold lace Hungarian knot on the thighs enclosed within a large gold lace spearhead. The outer seams were decorated with a wide gold stripe
piped either side with a line of gold piping with a scarlet welt between. Boots were of the shaped hussar pattern with gold lace trim and tassels. For campaign dress, the breeches were as above but in light-blue-grey or, alternatively, tight fitting grey overall trousers were worn with a single row of gilt buttons on the seam. The barrel-sash was gold silk worked through with black thread.
2.5.2.5 Equipment
Waist-belts were covered with gold lace with a double black stripe and were of the narrow hussar pattern and supported the light cavalry sabre with gilded hilt and black leather scabbard with gilt fittings. Sabre-straps were as for the other General Officers. The sabretache was scarlet with wide gold lace edging and Cypher. For campaign, plain black leather belting was worn.
2.5.2.6 Horse Furniture
Shabraques were scarlet and of the light cavalry pattern with long, pointed rear corners, and were trimmed with a double width of gold lace. The Royal Cypher appeared in both the front and rear corners. All harnessing was in black or scarlet leather with gilt fittings.

2.5.3 General-Adjutants and Flügel-Adjutants
2.5.3.1 Headgear
The headwear was initially the tricorn hat as worn by the General Officers with gold cockade-strap and black silk bow-cockade surmounted by the Generals'-pattern green feather plume. From about 1805 the schiffhut was worn with gold cockade-strap and green plume.
2.5.3.2 Coats
The coats were of the Infantry officers' pattern and dark green. Prior to 1805 it had poppy- red facings to the collar, cuffs and turnbacks and pockets were plain coat colour. Buttons were gilt for General-Adjutants and silver-plated for Flügel-Adjutants. Cuffs were edged at the upper and trailing edge with narrow gold trim. From 1805 the new pattern officers' coat was worn and turnbacks became poppy-red although the pockets remained unpiped.
2.5.3.3 Breeches etc.
Breeches were white and worn with black leather knee-boots, and from 1806 grey overall trousers, as worn by the General Officers, were issued for parade, with white metal or brass
buttons on the outer seams. The normal officers' pattern sash was worn over the left shoulder to denote the adjutants' status.
2.5.3.4 Equipment
Waist-belts were of a similar pattern to those of the General Officers and were gold with three narrow black lines through the length and a gilt buckle plate embossed with the
Imperial Eagle motif. The General-Adjutant carried the Infantry-pattern epée and the Flügel- Adjutant the curved light cavalry sabre. Both had gilded hilts and black leather scabbards with gilt fittings; sabre-straps were as the sash.
2.5.3.5 Horse Furniture
Shabraques were scarlet and of the same pattern used by the heavy cavalry with the Royal Cypher in the rear corners in gold. The edges were trimmed with a 2cm band of gold lace and
a 2cm band of black piped gold, reading from the outside inwards, with a narrow scarlet band at the extreme outer edge.

2.5.4 General-Quartiermeister-Stabs
2.5.4.1 Headgear
The General Staff officers wore the same pattern tricorn hat or schiffhut as the General- Adjutants with green plume and lace edging of gold according to rank.
2.5.4.2 Coat
The coats were of infantry pattern and were dark green with black facings on the collar and cuffs and gilt buttons. After 1805, with the issue of the new coat, black facings were added to the turnbacks. Frockcoats were as for the officers of infantry and were dark green with black collar and cuffs and gilded buttons.
2.5.4.3 Breeches etc
Breeches and overalls were is for the General-Adjutant and waist-sashes were as for the officers of infantry.
2.5.4.4 Equipment
Waist-belts were as for the Infantry officers but of black leather and supported the light cavalry pattern sabre with gilt hilt and black leather scabbard with gilded fittings. Sabre- straps were as for the sash.
2.5.4.5 Horse Furniture Shabraques were as for the General-Adjutants.
2.5.5 Stabs-Truppen
Uniforms were identical to those of the line Infantry and Dragoons, the former wearing the 1798 pattern helmet until 1814, except that coats were dark blue with scarlet facings and brass buttons. All equipment and other details were as for the line Infantry and Dragoons respectively.

----------------------------
Trouvé donc sur cette page : http://uniform-evolution.0catch.com/austria20u.html

General Staff

Until 1751 general officers had freedom to choose their own uniform and they wore what they pleased, and it was left to Maria Theresa to introduce a white half-length coat with rank designation shown by a broad golden ribbon stripe on the front facings and side-pocket flaps of the coat. This uniform remained virtually unaltered until the eighties, when the gold rank-bars were altered to a zigzag pattern and gold buttons, bearing an embossed star and an ornamented edge, introduced. In 1798 regulations for the first time made some distinction between field service (campagne) and parade (gala) uniforms. Greatcoats were henceforth to be hechtgrau, the same colour as worn by the 49th Regiment Vesque (later Hess), field-marshals wearing red and gold-embroidered collars and cuffs. The gold-bordered black general officer's head-dress with the 25cm high green plum was to be worn only for parades. General adjudants had the traditional green coat originally worn firstly by the horse-grenadiers and then by the Emperor Joseph's Chevaux-Legers des Kaisers (afterwards Uhlan Regiment 16). By an imperial command of 1765 this coat was conferred on all general-adjudants; it had the red linings and facings of the original-pattern coat but with the addition of general officer's buttons. The general-adjudants wore a plain black head-dress with a general's green plume; their waistcoats were straw coloured, with rank shown by the broad gold border stripes; the woolen breeches were of the same colour. Infantry field officer's boots and a gold-mounted sword completed the uniform. Flugeladjutanten (A.D.C.'s__usually to the monarch) wore the same dress as General-Adjutanten except that they had white buttons instead of gold, and a sabre instead of a sword.
The Major-General wore the dress for German general officers, his rank being shown by the zigzag gold stripe on the cuffs. Hungarian cavalry general officers wore an entirely different dress, somewhat similar to that of a hussar, with a half worn Pelz, a Kalpak with a plume of herons feathers, a red dolman, red trousers or overalls with a gold seam stripe, gold spurs, a red sabretache with the imperial arms in gold, and a sabre with a bright steel scabbard.


Cavalry Staff

General officers could wear the uniforms of their own regiment with the addition of arank-lace and staff plumes. There also existed a special costume for generals of the Hungarian cavalry, which included a plumed bearskin busby, white pelisse with five rows of buttons, red dolman and breeches, gold lace, black and gold barelled sash, Hessian boots with gilt spurs, sabre with bright steel scabbard, and a red sabretache bearing the Emperor's cypher in gold, with gold lace and silver embroidery as for the hussars. Horse harness was similar to that of a hussar field officer, with gilt fittings; red sabretache of the style of infantry officers, but with two broad black and gold laces, and the Emperor's cypher in the corners. Alternative service uniform included a pike grey pelisse (with rank lace), red dolman and breeches, black felt Hussar shako with gold lace and ornaments, a 25cm green feather plume (general's rank distinction); white cloak, and ordinary hussar overalls or yellow leather Hungarian breeches.
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Re: Grade dans l'armée autrichienne 1809

Messagepar Bernard » Jeu Nov 23, 2017 10:24 am

Merci beaucoup.
Je vais étudier tout ça!
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Re: Grade dans l'armée autrichienne 1809

Messagepar Bernard » Sam Nov 25, 2017 3:57 pm

Très bien.
Mais cela ne concerne que les très hauts gradés.
As-tu de la doc sur les grades plus petits, de caporal à colonel.
Ton site est surement très intéressant mais comme d'habitude je n'arrive absolument pas à l'ouvrir:
http://uniform-evolution.0catch.com/austria_index.html
Ludiquement
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Re: Grade dans l'armée autrichienne 1809

Messagepar Thierry Melchior » Lun Nov 27, 2017 11:51 am

Bonjour Bernard,

À propos du site sur l'Autriche et la Prusse : http://uniform-evolution.0catch.com/
Soit tu utilises Firefox, soit tu réactualises régulièrement la page, soit tu es patient et tu attends longtemps, longtemps, longtemps... et, tout d'un coup, miracle de la technologie la page s'affiche !
Fais comme moi, ouvre une page rien que pour ce site et va voir de temps en temps où ça en est !

Moi, je navigue mieux avec Firefox et un peu de patience car les images ne s'affichent pas immédiatement, ci-dessous je te copie les morceaux de texte où j'ai trouvé le mot « officer(s) » :

Bonne lecture et bonne peinture (en 6 mm ?) Bernard.
Thierry.
-----------


Non-commisioned Officers
Like the different commissioned ranks, those of NCOs were not distinguished by badges of rank. The Prima Plana ranks (Feldwebel, Fourier, ordinaire Cadetten) carried sabres of a higher quality than those of grenadiers, with gilded fittings and yellow and black camel hair sword knots, in a combined frog with the bayonette; they had leather gloves, and carried a 'Spanish reed' cane, normally suspended by its thong from a button on the breast of the jacket, with a loop on the shoulder belt to secure it when the owner was under arms. Corporals carried similar equipment, but with a grenadier sabre with woolen knot, leather gloves, and a hazel cane.

Traduction googlesque :
Officiers sans commission
Comme les différents grades commandés, ceux des sous-officiers n'étaient pas distingués par des insignes de grade. Les rangs de Prima Plana (Feldwebel, Fourier, Cadetten ordinaire) portaient des sabres d'une qualité supérieure à ceux des grenadiers, avec des garnitures dorées et des nœuds d'épée de poil de chameau jaunes et noirs, dans une grenouille combinée à la baïonnette; ils portaient des gants de cuir et portaient une canne «à anche espagnole», normalement suspendue par un bouton à la poitrine de la veste, avec une boucle sur la ceinture diagonale pour la fixer lorsque le propriétaire était sous les bras. Les caporaux portaient un équipement semblable, mais avec un sabre de grenadier avec un nœud en laine, des gants de cuir et une canne en noisetier.

Donc, en 1798, les officiers et les sous-officiers autrichiens n'ont pas d'insignes de grade !
Les officiers du rang n'ont qu'une ceinture.



The 1806 Uniform

Changes of uniform were instituted following the 1805 campaign. In August 1806 a shako was authorised, its introduction delayed until the helmets were due for replacement. First introduced into the Hungarian regiments, the new cap was originally made of black cloth (or cloth on leather), 20.5cm high and 2.5cm wider at the top than the bottom, with a wide leather peak and rear peak; on the front was a brass loop and button with a brass cockade shaped to resemble pleated fabric, painted black and yellow. Leather cockades and lace loops probably also existed at this period. At the top of the front was ayellow woollen pompom with a black center. An upper band of 15mm yellow lace was worn by corporals, and two such bands by Prima Plana ranks. A number of varieties are recorded. Temporary issues were made initially from canvas pasted onto cardboard; and in December 1810 a second version was ordered, made of felt.*


1806 - 1815
For officers, the shako was described by the 1811 dress regulations, confirming rank markings apparently introduced from 1806; for senior officers a broad lace band around the top, with narrow gold piping on either side, and for subalterns two narrower gold bands with a line of black between, the upper band about 15mm from the edge. The pompom was 4cm broad standing 2.5cm higher than the the upper edge of the cap, its black velvet centre bearing the Emperor's cypher.

The gold lace cockade loop was 15mm wide, with a gilt or silver button (whichever the regiment wore). Instead of a rear peak, officer's caps had an upturned dummy neck-guard at the rear, having, like the front peak, a 15mm gold lace edging; a black waterproof cover could be worn on campaign. For field officers, and for grenadier officers on the march and similar occasions, the bicorn hat could be used with a 5cm gold border for field ranks, a 6cm gold loop and corner roses bearing 'F.I' on the black centre. Grenadier officers retained the fur cap, specified as 30cm high at the front and 12.5cm at the rear. In 1806 a new grenadier cap plate was introduced, with curved sides and bearing a crowned double headed eagle with 'F.I' on a shield on its breast, but earlier patterns doubtless remained in use. A third distinct pattern featured the eagle of 1806 but with an irregular edge like that worn before, with the plate fretted out around the motifs. Officers' plates were gilded, and the cloth rear was specified as 'Emperor yellow'. The bicorn was worn in marching order.


The 1806 Uniform (Cont'd)

The 1811 officer's regulations described the white coatee as having white turnbacks, but several sources (including Ottenfeld & Teuber and some contemporary ones) indicate that coloured turnbacks were worn by some, either by individual or regimental practice. The 1811 regulations noted that the collar should not exceed 10cm deep nor the cuffs 7.5cm; for field officers, cuff lace was to be 2cm wide. Hungarian breeches were to have 15mm metallic lace down the side and as thigh knots, with 2.5cm lace for field officers; grey breeches were to be reserved for active service and not worn on parade, and some sem to have worn grey cavalry overalls on campaign. Officer's gloves were yellow leather, with gauntlet cuffs between 4 and 5cm broad; the cane was dropped from general use by ranksfrom Oberst downwards. The sash was unchanged; it was worn over the left shoulder by adjudants. From April 1810 only field officers were permitted to wear steel spurs.

By the 1811 regulations metal scabbards were prohibited; the Degen or of German infantry had a blade length between 72.5cm and 80cm, 2.5cm wide, with brown leather scabbard. Until this date no close specifications for sabres had been given; Hungarians, grenadier, Jager and Grenz officers had carried Hussar-style sabres of their choice, but from 1811 some standardisation was introduced, though considerable latitude was still permitted. Officers were allowed to choose between plain gilded brass hilts and scabbard fittings (preferred by grenadiers and Jagers, or more ornate ones (carried by Hungarians and Grenzers); the blade was to be 67.5cm or 70cm long and 4cm wide, with black leather scabbard. The previous sword belts remained in use (white leather, or gold with four black stripes 4.5cm wide, upon 7.5cm red leather backing, with eagle plate for officers); sword knots were gold with black stripes and gold tassels.

Other Orders of Dress

Undress uniform consisted of a sleeved, single-breasted white cloth waistcoat with ten buttons, or a similar but shorter and sleeveless garnment apparently adopted around 1808-09; both could be worn underneath the jacket. German regiments wore their white breeches with the white stockings normally concealed by the black gaiters; Hungarians wore their infantry pantaloons. Undress caps were issued regimentally, so many varieties probably existed. The general German type appears to have been a round, white cloth cap with a semi-circular turned-up front, though facing-coloured piping may have been used, and possibly a facing -coloured grenade badge by grenadiers. Hungarians appear to have worn a blue cloth 'stocking cap'. Among regimental variations, the 3rd Regt. wore sky blue (facing-coloured) caps with a 'bag' ending in a white tassel; while in 1801 the officers of the 50th designed for themselves a gold-trimmed red cap with an edging of black and gold.

he single breasted greatcoat was made of greyish-brown cloth, some contemporary pictures indicating the colour more brown than grey. With wide skirts and deep, turned-up cuffs, it fastened with six buttons on the breast and had a shoulder strap on the left, piped in the facing colour (some sources show two straps). Its standing colar was either piped in the facing colour and fastened with two small buttons, or bore a facing-coloured patch with a button on each side. Some NCOs appear to have worn shorter-skirted coats resembling officer's Oberrocks. Grenadiers wore a facing-coloured grenade on the collar in addition to the patch.
----------------------

1809 :
The Landwehr

The concept of a national militia or Landwehr was always viewed with unease by the authorities: as Archduke Charles wrote, they were potentially dangerous if the population were dissafected, and 'make it appear as if we have large masses of combatants and so induce a false sense of security'. By spring of 1808, however, even he conceded that a militia was required; and in June the Landwehr was formed, service being compulsory for all men aged between 18 and 45, unless they belonged to exempt categories or were army reservists. It was estimatedthat Austria could raise 180,000 Landwehr and Hungary 50,000, but such numbers were never attained; the Hungarian Diet refused to sanction it, and it was thought dangerous to raise it in Galicia, whose Poles were believed dissafected. The organisation was divided into 'normal' and volunteer units in three 'directorates' (Bohemia, Moravia, Inner Austria, Upper/Lower Austria); establishment was 170 battalions, each of four to six fusilier companies and two Jager or Schutzen companies, armed with rifles. Officers were recalled from the retired list, and units were to train on Sundays and at an annual three-week camp; but training was patchy and officers indifferent. Between five and ten battalions were to form each brigade__though when the Landwehr actually saw service they were usually attached to line formations. Except for the wolunteer units (by definition more committed), the majority did not distinguish themselves; discipline was poor (one battalion attacked its commander with bayonettes), and the Minister of War described them as 'a body without a soul' and useful only in supplying drafts to the regulars.

In 1809, Upper Austria mustered 12,200 men in 15 battalions; about three-quarters deserted upon the approach of the French, leaving only the volunteer units prepared to fight, as three battalions did with great gallantry at Ebelberg. After the defeat of 1809 Napoleon demanded the de-activation of the Landwehr; but registers were kept, and in 1811 it was decreed that when re-formed, they would form the fourth battalions of each Line regiment.
The system is illustrated by the Styrian Landwehr, of which there were 13 battalions: five in the Graz district, two in the Brucker district, two in the Judenburg district, two in Marburg and two in the Cilli district. In the first Graz and in each of the Brucker battalions there were two rifle companies, the best equipped and most active men, usually merchants, students and foresters. An order of June 1808 specified the uniform for Inner Austrian Landwehr, districts being distinguished by their facing colours: Styria (Steiermark), white; Carithia (Karnten), and Triest, red; Carniola (Krain, light-blue; and Salzburg, yellow. Uniform comprised a grey-green or dark green short coat with facing-coloured collar, cuffs and shoulder strap piping, and white buttons; white or pike grey breeches, black gaiters, and a 'round hat' 15cm high, with a 9cm wide brim usually turned up on one or both sides, bearing a cockade in provincial colours (green and white for Styria). White leather belts were worn, black for NCOs (but actually more widespread); NCOs also had sabres with white-and-green or green knots, and the usual canes. Officers wore bicorns with silver loop and button, silver and white tassels and provincial cockade; a green tail-coat with shoulder strap on the right; grey breeches with camel hair braid on the outer seams and as thigh knots; and carried a sabre with a silver and white knot on a black glazed shoulder belt. Rank markings were one, two or three silver loops on the collar for Unterleutnant, Oberleutnant and Hauptmann respectively; field officers had silver-edged collar and shoulder straps, and silver braid on the breeches. Jagers wore a waist belt with a cartridge box at the front instead of shoulder belts, and carried a powder horn on green cord over the left shoulder; their bayonette was suspended from the same belt, though NCOs also carried a sabre.
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Jagers

To replace the light battalions, a regiment of Tyrolean Jagers was formed in 1801, three battalions each of six companies. Prior to this date, Jagers (riflemen) had been deployed in individual companies, with the 46th regiment two six company battalions, and a four-company rifle battalion recruited from the Tyrol, which traditionally supplied the army's riflemen. The new unit was numbered 64 and styled the Tyroler-Jager-Regiment, its personnel coming from the previous Tyrolean Sharpshooters, d'Aspre and Le Loup Frei-Corps and the 46th's Tyroleans. The Inhaber was the Marquis de Chasteler, commander of the Tyrol area, but after its loss in 1805 the designation became Jager-Regiment Chasteler. Uniformed similarly to the light infantry, they wore grey with green facings and helmet crest and black leatherwork; officers carried grenadier sabres, and at least in part were armed with the 1798 rifle.

In 1808 nine 'divisions' of Jagers were formed, four in Bohemia, two each in Austria and Moravia and one in Inner Austria. Each had a peacetime establishment of a staff officer , two assistant surgeons, three quartermaster staff, two Hauptleute (captain or captain-lieutenant), two Oberleutnants, and Unterleutnants, four Oberjagers and 16 Unterjagers, (NCOs), four hornists, two pioneers, 240 Jagers and six servants. On December 1st , 1808 each 'division' was expanded into six-company battalion, each company with two officers, seven NCOs, ten Patrouillefuhrers ('patrol ;eaders', equivalent to corporals), a hornist and between 50 and 60 men; in wartime each battalion was expanded to 860 men.

Jagers wore pike grey breeches and single breasted jacket, grass green collar, cuffs and turnbacks, yellow buttons bearing the battalion number, and black 'Corsican hat' (Korsehut) with a feather and a leather chinstrap; this 'round hat' with an upturned brim had a 6.5cm high brassshield specified, bearing the battalion number, but this is not shown by all sources. Hornists* had grass green wings laced white. Officers wore cocked hats with gold lace and loop, and gold horn turnback badges; field officers had the usual sword belts and gold cuff lace, leatherwork for lower ranks being black. Their breeches were pike grey with gold braid thigh knots and 1.5cm wide stripes. Overcoats for 'other ranks' were dark 'mixed grey' with six buttons, for officers of dark 'Moorish grey' with gass green collar and cuffs. NCOs had black and gold sword knots and light yellow gloves, Oberjagers carrying 'Spanish reed' canes, Unterjagers and Stabstrompeters hazel canes with black straps. Cadets had gloves and sword knots.
Fouriers wore coat and breeches of dark 'mixed grey' (the latter white for parade), with green collar and cuffs, overcoats of 'mixed grey', hat with gold loop, and an epee with NCO knot. Surgeons wore pike grey coats with black collars. Officers were clean shaven, but others wore moustaches.
---------------------------------

The 1805 Uniform

Emphasis continued to be placed upon a smart appearance, ranks from Felwebel upwards being urged to set an example, and never to appear in a uniform other than that prescribed by regulations or mixed with civilian clothing. Officers were urged to dress with propriety and to eschew ostentation and forreign styles, though variations of officers' uniforms were not regarded with as much disfavour as before. No officer or soldier was to move beyond his company area in wartime without his sidearm.
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Re: Grade dans l'armée autrichienne 1809

Messagepar Bernard » Lun Déc 11, 2017 12:06 pm

Je crois que j'ai trouvé!
Donc si je comprends bien tout est dans le col...
...contrairement aux français. Correct?
Image
Mince, je ne sais pas comment le tourner!!!!
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Re: Grade dans l'armée autrichienne 1809

Messagepar Thierry Melchior » Lun Déc 11, 2017 2:20 pm

Bernard a écrit :Je crois que j'ai trouvé!
Donc si je comprends bien tout est dans le col...
...contrairement aux Français. Correct ?
Mince, je ne sais pas comment le tourner!!!!
Pas de souci pour l'image on peut la tourner une fois sur l'hébergeur.
Désolé Bernard, mais cette image doit provenir d'une collection sur l'armée autrichienne en 1914, je l'avais trouvée lors de mes recherches, dommage.
Oui, les officiers portent des signes de grade au col.

J'ai traduit la suite du texte en anglais que j'ai posté précédemment en allant sur Google Traduction.
Je le retranscrit tel que ou à peu près :

Les marques de rang étaient une, deux ou trois boucles d'argent sur le col pour Unterleutnant, Oberleutnant et Hauptmann respectivement; en campagne les sous-officiers avaient des sangles et des bretelles à bordure argentée et une tresse d'argent sur les culottes… les sous-officiers portaient également un sabre.

Les officiers portaient des chapeaux à armure avec de la dentelle dorée et des boucles, et des insignes de retour en corne dorée; les officiers de terrain avaient les ceintures habituelles d'épée et la dentelle de manchette d'or, le cuir pour les rangs inférieurs étant noirs. Leurs culottes étaient gris pike avec des noeuds de cuisse de tresse d'or et des rayures larges de 1.5cm. Les pardessus pour les «autres rangs» étaient de couleur «gris mélangé» foncé avec six boutons, pour les officiers de couleur sombre «mauresque» avec col et poignets verts. Les sous-officiers avaient des noeuds d'épée noirs et dorés et des gants jaunes clairs, les Oberjagers portant des cannes en «roseau d'Espagne», des cannes de noisetier Unterjagers et Stabstrompeters avec des sangles noires. Les cadets avaient des gants et des noeuds d'épée.
Les Fouriers portaient un manteau et une culotte d'un gris mélangé sombre (ce dernier blanc pour la parade), avec col et poignets verts, pardessus de gris mélangé, chapeau à boucle d'or et une épée avec un nœud NCO. Les chirurgiens portaient des manteaux de pike gris avec des colliers noirs. Les officiers étaient rasés de près, mais d'autres portaient des moustaches.
1806 - 1815
Pour les officiers, le shako était décrit par le règlement de robe de 1811, confirmant les marques de rang apparemment introduites à partir de 1806; pour les officiers supérieurs, une large bande de dentelle autour du haut, avec des passepoils d'or étroits de chaque côté, et pour les subalternes deux bandes d'or plus étroites avec une ligne de noir entre, la bande supérieure à environ 15mm du bord. Le pompon mesure 4 cm de large, 2,5 cm plus haut que le bord supérieur de la casquette, son centre de velours noir portant le chiffre de l'Empereur.

La boucle de la cocarde en dentelle d'or mesurait 15 mm de large, avec un bouton doré ou argenté (quel que soit le régiment utilisé). Au lieu d'une crête arrière, les bonnets de l'officier avaient un protège-nuque replié à l'arrière, ayant, comme le sommet avant, une bordure de dentelle dorée de 15 mm; une couverture imperméable noire pourrait être portée en campagne. Pour les officiers sur le terrain, et pour les grenadiers en marche et similaires, le bicorne pourrait être utilisé avec une bordure en or de 5cm pour les rangs, une boucle en or de 6cm et des roses d'angle portant 'F.I' sur le centre noir. Les grenadiers gardent le bonnet de fourrure, indiqué à 30 cm de haut à l'avant et à 12,5 cm à l'arrière. En 1806, une nouvelle plaque de grenadier a été introduite, avec des côtés incurvés et portant un aigle à deux têtes couronné avec 'F.I' sur un bouclier sur sa poitrine, mais les modèles antérieurs sont sans doute restés en usage. Un troisième motif distinct a caractérisé l'aigle de 1806 mais avec un bord irrégulier comme celui porté avant, avec la plaque frettée autour des motifs. La plaque des officiers était dorée, et l'arrière en tissu était spécifié comme «Empereur jaune». Le bicorne était porté en ordre de marche.

Selon le règlement de l'officier de 1811, la livrée blanche avait des revers blancs, mais plusieurs sources (y compris Ottenfeld & Teuber et quelques-unes contemporaines) indiquent que certaines recrues de couleur étaient portées par certains, par la pratique individuelle ou régimentaire. Le règlement de 1811 notait que le col ne devait pas dépasser 10 cm de profondeur ni les poignets 7,5 cm; pour les officiers de terrain, la dentelle de manchette devait être large de 2 cm. Les culottes hongroises devaient avoir des lacets métalliques de 15 mm sur le côté et des nœuds de cuisse, avec de la dentelle de 2,5 cm pour les officiers de terrain; les culottes grises devaient être réservées pour le service actif et non portées à la parade, et certaines avaient porté des combinaisons de cavalerie grise en campagne. Les gants d'officier étaient en cuir jaune, avec des manchettes de 4 à 5 cm de large; la canne a été abandonnée d'usage général par les rangs d'Oberst vers le bas. La ceinture était inchangée; il était porté sur l'épaule gauche par les adjudants. À partir d'avril 1810, seuls les officiers de terrain étaient autorisés à porter des éperons en acier.

Par les règlements de 1811 les fourreaux de métal ont été interdits; le Degen ou de l'infanterie allemande avait une longueur de lame entre 72.5cm et 80cm, 2.5cm de large, avec le fourreau en cuir brun. Jusqu'à cette date, aucun cahier des charges précis pour les sabres n'avait été donné; Les Hongrois, les grenadiers, les officiers de Jager et de Grenz avaient porté des sabres de style hussard de leur choix, mais à partir de 1811 une normalisation fut introduite, bien qu'une latitude considérable fût encore permise. Les officiers avaient le choix entre des poignées en laiton doré et des fourreaux (préférables aux grenadiers et aux Jagers, ou plus ornés (portés par les Hongrois et les Grenzers), la lame devait mesurer 67,5 cm ou 70 cm de long et 4 cm de large avec fourreau en cuir noir Les anciennes ceintures d'épée restaient en usage (cuir blanc ou or avec quatre rayures noires de 4,5 cm de large, dos en cuir rouge de 7,5 cm, avec plaque d'aigle pour les officiers), les noeuds d'épée étaient or avec des rayures noires et des glands d'or.
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Re: Grade dans l'armée autrichienne 1809

Messagepar Thierry Melchior » Mar Jan 09, 2018 4:00 pm

Dernier renseignement trouvé sur Napoleon Series :
http://www.napoleon-series.org/military ... sinf1.html
Il faut lire tous les chapitres dans le menu déroulant en bas (pas seulement : « Rank distinctions ») mais tu trouveras quelques représentation graphiques (et en utilisant Chrome tu auras une traduction passable)
Attention : ce sont des fenêtres pop-up (ou fenêtres « surgissantes »), il faut vérifier si ton navigateur les bloque ou pas (bien sûr, il faut modifier la préférence s'il les bloque)
S&B : règle microtactique pour les combats de 1700 à 1825
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Re: Grade dans l'armée autrichienne 1809

Messagepar Bernard » Jeu Jan 11, 2018 10:47 am

Merci
Je regarde tout ça!
:D
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